As a historian I have always sought answers to current social questions. Listening to other people and watching the surroundings are my starting points. The idea is to awaken citizens to faults in the prerequisites for their life and to provide them with tools for getting to grips on their own with these defects. Politically I am a reformist who is today active in BIEN Finland, the Finnish branch of Basic Income Earth Network.
Born in Helsinki 12 November 1940 I started my academic career1966 as a junior lecturer at the University of Helsinki and retired as professor of contemporary history from the University of Turku in 2004.
Before starting my work as professor in Turku in 1992, my research had been financed by the University of Helsinki for five, The Academy of Finland for six, The Trade Union of Paper and Pulp Industry Workers for seven and the Ministry of Labour for two years. My studies have dealt both with 20th century Finnish politics from foreign policies to unemployment and the methodology and theory of historical research. The list of my publications consists of 13 books and 218 scholarly articles.
In 1975-76 I worked as Senior Associate Member of St. Anthony’s College at the University of Oxford and in 1977 as a guest scholar at the University of Greifswald and in 1979 at the University of Oslo. Institute of Historical Research was my host in 1993-94 when working in London under the auspices of the exchange programme between the Academy of Finland and British Academy.